1. Religion Traditionally, the Kanakanavu people believe in tinaravai (the spiritual world). On the right shoulder is ’incu, the kind spirit, and on the left shoulder is ’ucu, the evil spirit. These spirits and people live in two different worlds. People live a world called mamane, i.e. a world that can be seen by the eyes and touched by the hands and feet. Spirits can only be felt. Morphologically, “tinaravai” is the compounding of “ravai” and “vai”, appellations of the spouse of siblings and lineal siblings. Semantically, the Kanakanavu people value the parallel relationship between the spirits and people and dislike confrontation. Traditionally, after arriving at a new place or venue, particularly in the deep mountains and forests, the Kanakanavu people will put a small piece of food on a piece of wood or stone before eating and shed wine in the air with their fingers before drinking, while saying words of blessings at the same time. This process called “maritamu” aims to share and interact with tinaravai and pray for blessings. Most Kanakanavu people believe in Christianity, although with a small population, they go to different churches, including the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Catholic Church, and True Jesus Church. The tinaravai belief is less known to or has never even been heard of by modern Kanakanavu people. When attending rituals, they simply follow what the elders do. 2. Traditional Rituals There are three major groups of traditional rituals: rituals relating to millet growth, rituals relating to hunting and head hunting, and rituals relating to the river and babies based on a family or a household. Due to government intervention or the Christianity belief, some rituals were almost discontinued. It was not until 30 years ago that Mikongu (the Millet Ritual) and Pasiakarai (River Ritual) were recovered. Today, they are annual rituals attended by all Kanakanavu people. The mikongu is the core of the above rituals. It is said that it was the dwarves (Tapucarake) who gave millet seeds to the Kanakanavu people. According to seniors, the Tapucarake were sho
Some ethnic groups name themselves according to the term “mankind” in their respective languages, such as “Cou” for the Tsou people and “Bunun” for the Bunun people. Although the term “mankind” in the Kanakanavu language is “cau”, they call themselves “Kanakanavu”. There is neither a written record nor oral history regarding this origin. Morphologically, the stem “-navu” is almost identical to the Kanakanavu term for the “Taiwan giant bamboo” (Dendrocalamus latiflorus). As the prefix “ka-” suggests “to live” or “to belong to”, some Kanakanavu people infer that Kanakanavu people may have lived in a Taiwan giant bamboo forest when they gradually formed a village, and they called themselves “Kanavu”, i.e. “people living in the Taiwan giant bamboo forest”. While “Kanavu” is an expression of singularity, and “Kanakanau” is a reduplicative, i.e. an expression of plurality. The Chinese transliterations found in related literature include: Cao-Jianziwufan / Alishanfan Jianziwushe or Ganziwushe / Kanabu Community / Kanakanabu / Kankanafu, and some other people called them “Taivuran” (a mistaken demonym). There is one story about the origin of the Kanakanavu people. “A mother called Niun lived with her son Parumaci together. As life was tough and lonely, Niun often sighed in front of Parumaci, complaining about how hard life was! Parumaci comforted Niun, promising to give her a happy future. On saying this, Parumaci stood up suddenly and kicked the trunk of a karu sʉrʉ (Jiatan tree) with red leaves. All the leaves fell down and overlapped one another. Then, they became a house. Parumaci kicked the tree again, and the fallen leaves became men, hundreds of men, and Parumaci became their chief, forming a village.” This is the only legend relating to the Kanakanavu origin. According to the “indigenous people household records” during Dutch occupation, in 1647, there is an entry about the “Jianziwushe” (Holo pronunciation of Kanavu): 157 people
Slash-and-burn and fishing are the respective major and minor economic activities of the Kanakanavu people. Traditional crops include millet, upland rice, glutinous rice, sweet potatoes, taro, and corn. Hunting, including individual and group hunting, is a male-dominant activity. The Slack season starts from September to April the following year. Finding food for the family is the main purpose of individual hunting, while sourcing sacrifices for rituals is the central target of group hunting. The Kanakanavu people catch fish with spears, nets, hooks, poison, and enclosures. 1. Crafts Carpentry works take the forms of wooden mortars, wooden buckets, steamers, wooden back racks, wooden pillows, wooden benches, wooden pestles, and wooden sticks. Weaving includes rattan and bamboo weaving, with works including bamboo rice baskets, bamboo water bottles, bamboo back baskets, rattan and bamboo mats, bamboo bows and arrows, bamboo cups, and bamboo ladles. Tanning and leathering works include carrying bags, tobacco bags, and clothes made with deerskin, sheepskin, and muntjac skin. 2. Architecture Cakʉrʉ (the Assembly Hall) is where the Kanakanavu people discuss public affairs. It is a mens-only place for discussing affairs including rituals, politics, military, education, and socialization. In earlier times, there was the “watchtower”. It almost became extinct after Japanese colonization. The Kanakanavu people prefer building family houses on a hillside or a platform with wooden columns, bamboo walls, and thatch roofs. Based on the terrain, there family houses can be vertically rectangular or horizontally rectangular. Inside the house there are the stone stove, hanging racks, and beds. Records of Japanese colonization show that there were graves of ancestors in the house. The size of a family house varies according to the number of the family members. 3. Clothing Traditional men’s clothing includes animal skin headgear. People must dress up for important events. A red stripe of cloth stripe is worn along the forehead on top of the headgear to hold feathers. Ordinary people carry 1-4 long feathers of the eagle and Taiwan blue pheasant, elders can
It is said that the Kanakanavu people used to have an hereditary system for Ra’Ani (chief), Kara’Ani (deputy chief), Vasʉ (marshal), and ’Ʉrʉvʉ (priest), one of each. The “elder council” formed by Mamarurang (the elders) was the highest political and legislative body. Today, the Kanakanavu people have 17 family names: ’Amunuana, Ka’angaina, Kapuana, Ka’aviana, Kakapiana, Napaniana, Numangiana, Navirangana, Na’uracana, Kacaupuana, Kanapaniana, Kanapangana, Na’upana, ’Ikuana, Namaitana, Naturingana, and ’Utungana. Chinese family names include:Hsiao, Cheng, Weng, Peng, Chiang, Yang, Chung, Wang, Yu, Tsai, Kung, Fan, Lan, Shih, Chen, Chin, Hsieh. There are 17 traditional men’s names: ’Akori, ’Angai, ’Apio, ’Avia, ’Atai, Riau, Pani, Pa’ʉ, Pori, ’Uku, Mu’u, ’Una, Piori, ’Uangʉ, Pusinga, Cimseeng, ’Upa; and 16 women’s names: ’Akuan, ’Ari(e), ’Apu’u, Kai, Kau, Kini, Kiua, Kuatʉ, Na’u, Rangui, Paicʉ, Pi’i, Vanau, ’Usu, ’Uva, Savoo. In the Kanakanavu language, a family house is called “tanasa”, and a family is called “cani pininga”, meaning “a square”, referring to “people living under the same roof”. In other ethnic groups (e.g. Tsou or Bunun), there are clear definitions for a clan, a household, and a family. There are sub-groups within a main ethnic group and branches under a sub-group, forming a hierarchical structure. The Kanakanavu people form an ethnic group through parallel households. In Kanakanavu society, every family has a marangʉ, the family head. Traditionally, the marangʉ must be a man, i.e. patrilineality. Community affairs are shared through the nature of laborworks. Men are responsible for heavy and dangerous works, while women are in charge of house chores and sewing. Both men and women may engage in farming.
Project Goal This Project aims to improve the living environment quality and long-term care service in indigenous communities, integrate regional public service locations, and renovate and enrich related facilities to develop indigenous communities into health-friendly spaces with cultural implications and provide integrated services, i.e. based on the core of “Tribal Heart”, as shown in Figure 2.1.1. 1. Combine indigenous cultures with the characteristics of local landscapes and facilities, renovate indigenous culture and health integrated service locations, and provide services required by indigenous communities based on indigenous resources and characteristics and local conditions. 2. Build urban indigenous villages based on the “Tribal Heart” concept to improve the living quality and cultural succession performance of indigenous peoples living in metropolitan areas. 3. Improve public facilities around culture and health integrated service locations and the quality of environments around culture and health integrated service locations. 4. Enhance the capacity of culture and health integrated service locations; integrate long-term care, child daycare, after-school care, and wireless broadband services for indigenous peoples; and develop culture and health integrated service locations into “Tribal Heart” pilot locations. 5. Connect with the digital economy and health application services, narrow the urban-rural digital gap, integrate indigenous digital resources, and promote indigenous economic development and health care with cloud applications. Strategy and Method To effectively, systematically, and permanently resolve the above problems in indigenous communities, the Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) planned ahead to sustainably expand all implementation plans relating to indigenous peoples. Through the Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program: Urban and Rural Projects to Balance Regional Development, CIP implements four tasks: “Renovation of Friendly Spaces for Culture and Health Integrated Service Locations in Villages”, “Urban Indigenous Village Building”, “Improvement o
1.“Planning and establishment of the National Museum of Indigenous Peoples (NMIP) to enhance the preservation of indigenous cultural assets” is one of the President’s indigenous policies. CIP initiated site selection across the country in 2017 and selected a foundation of 14 hectares at Chengqing Lake, Kaohsiung. The Executive Yuan approved the museum’s feasibility study report on April 26, 2019, with an estimated budget of NT$3.468 billion. Subsequent work will include integrated planning, urban planning, environmental impact assessment, and artefact collection and pilot research. 2.The NMIP is positioned as “Taiwan’s first national museum for indigenous peoples to present the subjectivity of Taiwan indigenous peoples at the national level” to “highlight the subjectivity of indigenous peoples” based on “storytelling by indigenous peoples”. In addition, instead of presenting the “traditionalized” indigenous peoples in museums in the past, the NMIP “demonstrates the contemporaneity of indigenous peoples” to proactively promote and implement the preservation of indigenous cultures, demonstrate domestically and internationally the multiculturalism in Taiwan’s subjectivity, and consider the situations, achievements, future expectations, and outlook of contemporary indigenous peoples. 3. The site of the NMIP occupies an area of about 14 hectares, including roughly 10 hectares of trees. To demonstrate the worldview of Taiwan indigenous peoples, local forests and natural landscapes will be maintained for a picture of “people in mountains and waters”. As the five major museum functions: artefact collection, research and interpretation, exhibition space, education promotion, and visitor service are deployed in the buildings on the site, a corresponding spatial demand of about 37,000m2 is proposed. Major zones by function include the exhibition, education promotion, artefact collection, research and interpretation, administration, and visit service zones. Compared to other national museums, the NMIP is a medium museum. 4. In terms of the quality and scale o
Project Goal (1) To construct or deepen industrial demonstration highlights with indigenous cultural characteristics and strengthen integration of cross-industry technologies and resources to build an environment for sustainable development. (2) To discover and develop industrial operation and management talents in indigenous peoples and enhance industry-academia collaboration to fill the job openings with the “learning by doing and doing while learning” strategy. (3) To develop and publicize indigenous brands and ensure brand uniqueness and representativeness through storytelling marketing and quality optimization. (4) To enhance investment in and guidance for indigenous startup strategies and search for appropriate business models to stabilize startup foundation and deepen industrial roots. (5) To enhance connection between metropolitan areas and indigenous townships and achieve complementation with a “front shop (metropolises), back factory (indigenous townships)” model to circulate the products and services of indigenous peoples. (6) To produce gender statistics, increase opportunities for indigenous women to participate in making decisions for economic and industrial development, and build a gender friendly environment. Strategy and Method Major Work Items To adhere to the outcomes of the previous plan, this plan will be implemented inby phases to broaden the scope of service and deepen the magnitude of guidance. From the fundamental environment deployment, industrial talents development, and brand channel construction, apart from consolidating the capital, talents, channels, and marketing resources required for economic and industrial development, guidance will be enhanced and knowledge will be developed for industrial demo highlights to carry forward the featured agriculture, cultural and industrial industries, and ecotourism industry based on indigenous knowledge, and extend to digitization, ICT, green energy, and biotechnology, or combine with sports, leisure, and healthcare for cross-sector development, in order to create new opportunities for diversification of industrial development.
I. Background As a multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural country, there are 16 indigenous groups speaking 42 indigenous languages in Taiwan, forming Taiwan’s multiculturalism. However, under the policy of “official language supremacy and dialect suppression” implemented for over a century during Japanese colonization and the National Government period, neither the environment nor the field for the use of indigenous languages has been preserved and protected. As a result, the indigenous language proficiency of indigenous peoples aged below 30 has been reduced significantly. According to the report content of the 2009 UNESCO survey and the “Indigenous Language Use and Proficiency of Indigenous Peoples Survey” conducted by CIP during 2012-2016, a serious language shift is observed in 42 indigenous languages spoken by 16 indigenous groups in Taiwan, and endangered indigenous languages include Pinuyumayan, SaySiyat, Sakizaya, Kabalaen, Thau a lalawa, Saaroa (Hla’alua), Kanakanavu, Teldreka, 'Oponoho, and Thakongadavane. In conclusion, to resolve the “death crisis” of endangered indigenous languages, this Plan is established to find the stop-loss point for the shift of endangered indigenous languages and assist with the promotion of the momentum and methods to promote the sustainable development of indigenous languages in terms of four main objectives: “Cultivation of Professionals for Indigenous Language Revitalization”, “Optimization of the Organization for the Indigenous Language Revitalization”, “Building a Living Environment for Indigenous Language Maintenance”, and “Preservation of Indigenous Language Corpus”. With such, this Project aims to effectively reduce the “death crisis” of endangered indigenous languages. II. Legal Basis 1. According to Paragraph 11, Article 10, Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China: “The State affirms cultural pluralism and shall actively preserve and foster the development of aboriginal languages and cultures.” 2. According to Article 7 of the Indigenous Languages Development Ac
1. Industry and Food Through early contact with other ethnic groups, “upland rice” and “rice” have become the staple food of the Thao people during the farming period. Non-staple food includes the sweet potato, taro, peanuts, corn, and wild edible plants and fruits. In addition to hunting, fishing is an important food source of the village and families. As Sun Moon Lake has rich seafood output, the Thao people cure their catch for preservation, making cured seafood one of the Thao specialty foods. Today, Ita Thao (Barawbaw) Village has become a famous tourism spot, and no farming is practiced anymore. Except for homegrown vegetables and seasonal bamboo sprouts, most Thao people engage in the tourism business and catering service. 2. Clothing Traditional Thao men’s and women’s clothing. (Women holding a pestle.) In the Qing dynasty, the “Dagobum” cloth of the Thao people earned fame, as recorded in the Imperial Qing Portraits of Periodical Offering. Dagobum is a cloth knitted with flax yarn and dog fur. Influenced by trade and exchange, the Thao people have switched to cotton fabrics of higher availability. Traditional men’s Thao clothing is made of leather, linen, and bark, including the leather headgear, headwear, chest wear, vest, skirt, breech-less trousers, and leather shoes. Traditional women’s Thao clothing is made of linen and cotton, including the headscarf, top covering, chest wear, skirt, waist belt, knee coverings, and floral headgear. Dark brown, light brown, blue, grey, and black are the common colors of Thao attire, and geometric patterns are common. 3. Craft ◎ Shipbuilding: Early Thao people emptied an entire tree to make a canoe, which was the principal vehicle for external transportation. Public canoes for a maximum of 5-6 passengers are for servicing kinsmen, while canoes for family use or fishing are smaller, for a maximum of 2 passengers. After the restoration of Taiwan, logging is prohibited, and the traditional technique of making canoes by emptying trees is rarely seen and nearly extinct. Today, canoes are made of patched wood boards. ◎ Poundings: On the last night of every
1. Kinship Organization Thao society is a patrilineal society. Intermarriages between clans were observed. In early days, they usually married within the same clan. In recent years, marriage across clans is becoming increasingly popular. In addition to being a marriage unit, the clan is also a kinship unit. In general, a clan is formed by people carrying the same family name. They are usually members of different worship groups playing different roles in rituals. The Thao people adopted seven Han surnames: Shinawanan, Shkatafatu, Shkapamumu, Shkahihian, Shtamarutaw, Shapit, and Shtanakjunan. Each is a transliteration or translation of the corresponding Thao surname in the Thao language. For example, Shinawanan means circular, and they picked a character with the same sound as “circle” in Mandarin Chinese; Shkapamumu means strong, and they picked the declination “mumu” and transliterated it in Mandarin Chinese. 2. Ita Thao Organization The Thao people still maintains a dual-chief system. Today, it is the Shinawanan and Shkatafatu families. The chiefdom is inherited, and a chief helps settle disputes among people and implement the resolutions made by the community meeting and the elder council. In annual ceremonies, the chief is the ritual master.